Criminal Justice - Mental Health

Criminal justice in Canada is handled at the federal level - meaning the Criminal Code of Canada sets out laws that apply to all Canadians. Criminal offenses are either indictable - where the law broken is a serious one, such as break and enter, drug trafficking, or murder, and go to trial by Jury. Less serious offenses are called summary convictions, such as causing a disturbance, and are handled in court by a judge, with lesser sentences. Mental health plays a large role in those convicted of crimes in Canada. Factors such as homelessness, poverty, trauma and existing mental illness can cause people to act in ways that break criminal laws. According to The 2011–2012 Annual Report of the Correctional Investigator, 36% of federal offenders were identified as requiring psychiatric or psychological evaluation or follow-up, and 45% of male inmates and 69% of female inmates received institutional mental health care services. If you have general questions regarding what is included in the Criminal Code of Canada, how mental health plays a role, would like legal information or assistance, or are looking for resources regarding mental health evaluations for offenses in Canada, we have what you are looking for.

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Mental Health, Crime and Criminal Justice

Responses and Reforms

It has long been known that the pathway through the criminal justice system for those with mental health needs is fraught with difficulty. This interdisciplinary collection explores key issues in mental health, crime and criminal justice, including: offenders' rights; intervention designs; desistance; health-informed approaches to offending and the medical needs of offenders; psychological jurisprudence, and; collaborative and multi-agency practice. This volume draws on the knowledge of professionals and academics working in this field internationally, as well as the experience of service users. It offers a solution-focused response to these issues, and promotes both equality and quality of experience for service users. It will be essential reading for practitioners, scholars and students with an interest in forensic mental health and criminal justice.

Insane

America's Criminal Treatment of Mental Illness

An urgent exposé of the mental health crisis in our courts, jails, and prisons America has made mental illness a crime. Jails in New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago each house more people with mental illnesses than any hospital. As many as half of all people in America's jails and prisons have a psychiatric disorder. One in four fatal police shootings involves a person with such disorders. In this revelatory book, journalist Alisa Roth goes deep inside the criminal justice system to show how and why it has become a warehouse where inmates are denied proper treatment, abused, and punished in ways that make them sicker. Through intimate stories of people in the system and those trying to fix it, Roth reveals the hidden forces behind this crisis and suggests how a fairer and more humane approach might look. Insane is a galvanizing wake-up call for criminal justice reformers and anyone concerned about the plight of our most vulnerable.

Criminal Justice and Mental Health

An Overview for Students

This textbook provides an overview for students in Criminology and Criminal Justice about the overlap between the criminal justice system and mental health. It provides an accessible overview of basic signs and symptoms of major mental illnesses and size of scope of justice-involved individuals with mental illness. In the United States, the criminal justice system is often the first public service to be in contact with individuals suffering from mental illness or in mental distress. Those with untreated mental illnesses are often at higher risk for committing criminal acts, yet research on this population continues to shed light on common myths – such a prevailing assumption that those with mental illness tend to commit more violent crimes. Law enforcement agents may be called in as first responders for cases of mental distress; and due to a lack of mental health facilities, resources, and pervasive misconceptions about this population, those with mental illness often end up in the corrections system. In this environment, students in Criminology and Criminal Justice are likely to encounter those with mental illness in their future career paths, and need to be prepared for this reality. This timely work covers the roles of each part of the criminal justice system interacting with mentally ill individuals, from law enforcement and first responders, social services, public health services, sentencing and corrections, to release and re-entry. It also covers the crucial topic of mental health for criminal justice professionals, who suffer from high rates of job stress, PTSD, and other mental health issues. The final section of the book includes suggestions for future research. This work will be of interest to students of criminology and criminal justice with an interest in working in the professional sector, as well as those in related fields of sociology, psychology, and public health. It will also be of interest to policy-makers and practitioners already working in the field. The overall goal of this work is to inform, educate, and inspire change.

Mental Health Issues in the Criminal Justice System

Discover how to best provide effective mental health treatments for criminal offenders Prisons and jails are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness and need treatment. Mental Health Issues in the Criminal Justice System examines a wide range of the latest research and learned perspectives focusing on the intersection of mental health services and the criminal justice system. Top experts and academics discuss mental health treatment, its availability, it effectiveness, and just how cost effective it truly is to treat those in prisons and jails. This valuable text provides a broad interdisciplinary view of the topic and presents important qualitative and quantitative research of specific topics, such as the effectiveness of prisoner representatives, the causal link between incarceration and mental illness, and the expanding rates of correctional offenders with mental illness. Mental Health Issues in the Criminal Justice System discusses a wide range of pertinent topics focusing on the viability and functioning of mental health treatment models in prisons and jails. Recommendations on desired correctional mental health programs are presented, along with strategies to better provide therapeutic services. Respected experts provide practical suggestions on research that needs to be addressed in the future. The book is extensively referenced and includes several tables and figures to clearly present data. Other topics in Mental Health Issues in the Criminal Justice System include: the prevalence of mental illness in jails and prisons—and the duty society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment three components critical to the success of jail diversion programs ethics of doing research on prisoners an extended care community corrections model the experience of mitigation experts in first degree murder cases in the penalty phase of the trial the criminalization of the mentally ill because of fragmentation of mental health services correctional offenders with mental illness (OMIs)—and their differences from the general offender population the role of the helping alliance in juvenile probation settings and much more! Mental Health Issues in the Criminal Justice System is a timely, insightful text for anyone in the criminal justice or mental health fields, educators, graduate students, and upper-level undergraduate students.

Women's Mental Health Issues Across The Criminal Justice System

This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book. The first of its kind, Women’s Mental Health Issues Across the Criminal Justice System is dedicated to giving the “most invisible” offenders in today’s criminal justice system—mentally ill adolescent girls and women—a face and a voice. The book is organized around the subsystems of the U.S. criminal justice system. Each section highlights mental health research and policy issues and focuses on the impediments to treatment and service delivery as well as the model programs, assessments, and intervention processes that offer hope within and across the system.

ABA criminal justice mental health standards

This text represents official ABA policy on matters relating to the mentally ill and mentally retarded and the criminal justice system.

A companion to criminal justice, mental health and risk

Within the domains of criminal justice and mental health care, critical debate concerning ‘care’ versus ‘control’ and ‘therapy’ versus ‘security’ is now commonplace. Indeed, the ‘hybridisation’ of these areas is now a familiar theme. This unique and topical text provides an array of expert analyses from key contributors in the field that explore the interface between criminal justice and mental health. Using concise yet robust definitions of key terms and concepts, it consolidates scholarly analysis of theory, policy and practice. Readers are provided with practical debates, in addition to the theoretical and ideological concerns surrounding the risk assessment, treatment, control and risk management in a cross-disciplinary context. Included in this book is recommended further reading and an index of legislation, making it an ideal resource for students at undergraduate and postgraduate level, together with researchers and practitioners in the field.

The Sequential Intercept Model and Criminal Justice

Promoting Community Alternatives for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness

"Authored by academic, policy, and practice experts in this area, Criminal Justice and Mental Illness offers an overview of the changes in correctional policy and practice during the last decade that reflect an increased focus on community-based alternatives for offenders"--

Therapeutic Justice

Crime, Treatment Courts and Mental Illness

This book examines Mental Health Courts (MHC) within a socio-legal framework. Placing these courts within broader trends in criminal justice, especially problem-solving courts, the author draws from two case studies with a mixed-methods design. While court observational and interview data highlight the role of rituals and procedural justice in the practices of the court, quantitative data demonstrates the impact of incentives, mental health treatment compliance and graduating patterns from MHC in altering patterns of criminal recidivism. In utilising these methods, this book provides a new understanding of the social processes by which MHCs operate, while narrative stories from MHC participants illustrate both the potential and limitations of these courts. Concluding by charting potential improvements for the functioning and effectiveness of MHCs, the author suggests potential reforms and ‘best practices’ for the future in tandem with rigorous analysis. This book will be of value and interest to students and scholars of criminology, law, and social work, as well as practitioners.

Mental Health and Criminal Justice

This is the first book to examine the relationship between the American mental health and criminal justice systems from a social science perspective. The contributors -- esteemed scholars from the fields of criminology, law and psychiatry -- illuminate critical areas of the mental health/criminal justice process: how laws and statutes govern the treatment of mentally disordered offenders, how a change in one procedure affects the entire intersystem process, how police manage the deinstitutionalized mentally ill, and how deviant behaviour is defined and treated.

Gender, Psychology, and Justice

The Mental Health of Women and Girls in the Legal System

Reveals how gender intersects with race, class, and sexual orientation in ways that impact the legal status and well-being of women and girls in the justice system. Women and girls’ contact with the justice system is often influenced by gender-related assumptions and stereotypes. The justice practices of the past 40 years have been largely based on conceptual principles and assumptions—including personal theories about gender—more than scientific evidence about what works to address the specific needs of women and girls in the justice system. Because of this, women and girls have limited access to equitable justice and are increasingly caught up in outdated and harmful practices, including the net of the criminal justice system. Gender, Psychology, and Justice uses psychological research to examine the experiences of women and girls involved in the justice system. Their experiences, from initial contact with justice and court officials, demonstrate how gender intersects with race, class, and sexual orientation to impact legal status and well-being. The volume also explains the role psychology can play in shaping legal policy, ranging from the areas of corrections to family court and drug court. Gender, Psychology, and Justice provides a critical analysis of girls’ and women’s experiences in the justice system. It reveals the practical implications of training and interventions grounded in psychological research, and suggests new principles for working with women and girls in legal settings.

The Criminalization of Mental Illness

Crisis and Opportunity for the Justice System

For a myriad of reasons the criminal justice system has become the de facto mental health system. This book explores how and why this is the case. Sensationalized cases often drive criminal justice policies that can sometimes be impulsively enacted and misguided. While there are chapters that examine competency, insanity, and inpatient and outpatient commitment, the primary focus of the book is on the bulk of encounters that clog the criminal justice system with persons with mental illnesses (pwmi). Criminal justice practitioners are often ill-equipped for dealing with pwmi in crises. However, via application of therapeutic jurisprudence principles some agencies are better preparing their employees for such encounters and attempting to stop the inhumane and costly recycling of pwmi through the criminal justice system. Coverage runs the gamut from deinstitutionalization, to specialized law enforcement responses, to mental health courts, to jails and prisons, to discharge planning, diversion, and reentry. Also, criminal justice practitioners in their own words provide insight into and examples of the interface between the mental health and criminal justice systems. Throughout the book the balance between maintaining public safety and preserving civil liberties is examined as the state's police power and parens patriae roles are considered. Reasoned, collaborative approaches for influencing and informing policies that are often driven by crises are discussed; this book also reflects more psychological underpinnings than the first edition, as one of the co-authors new to this edition is a forensic clinical psychologist.

Mental Health Counselors

Financial Health & Literacy

Mental Health Advocacy

Prenatal Health

Mental Health Peer Support

Mental Health Education

Mental Health Recovery

Health Conscious

Mental Health Issues

Canadian Mental Health Association - Mental Health and Justice Housing Support Services - Hamilton Central - 131 John St

The program provides housing support services to individuals with serious mental illness who are involved in the criminal justice system.

St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton - Forensic Psychiatry Program - West 5th Campus, Harbour North Unit

Helps to restore and maintain the mental health and well-being of mentally disordered adult offenders, while managing the risk they pose to public safety as mandated by the Criminal Code of Canada and ordered by the Ontario Review Board.

Ontario. Ministry of the Attorney General - Ontario Court of Justice - Criminal Court, Burlington - Burlington

Hears criminal law disputes including:
* assault
* break and enter
* failure to comply with bail and/or probation
* impaired driving
* robbery
* uttering threats

Additional information on Family and Provincial Court can be found at www.ontariocourts.on

Canadian Mental Health Association - Mental Health Services, Halton Region Branch Head Office - Oakville - Halton Region Branch Head Office - Oakville

Programs and services include:

Case Management
  • helps people manage symptoms in positive ways, get the right care, find a place to live, make healthy choices, and connect to others who can help

Information and Referral
  • provides information on mental health, addictions, and services to promote improved health and well-being
  • provides current and comprehensive information for people who have a mental health and/or addiction concerns as well as family members, friends, physicians, health care workers, or service providers
  • volunteer opportunities available

Crisis Outreach and Support Team (COAST)
  • provides telephone support and mobile intervention to persons who are in crisis and have a mental health concern

Education and Training
  • offer a range of workshops, courses, training, groups, and services to promote positive health and create a supportive community

Free Walk-In Counseling
  • get support with no referral or appointment necessary
  • service provided at different locations

Justice Services
  • providing assistance and court support services for people who have a mental health/addiction concern are are involved in the criminal justice system

Peer Support
  • offer two group programs: Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) and PeerZone workshops


Services and Programs:
  • COAST - Crisis Outreach and Support Team
  • Education and Training

Canadian Mental Health Association - COAST - Crisis Outreach and Support Team - Halton Region Branch Head Office - Oakville

Provides telephone support and mobile intervention to persons who are in crisis and have a mental health concern
  • a mobile team of mental health professionals and specially trained, plain-clothed police officers may also visit to help those in crisis remain safe in their own environment and connect with ongoing care
  • help is available Monday to Sunday, 24 hours a day
  • not an emergency response unit
  • if your situation is a life-threatening emergency, call 9-1-1
  • COAST is provided through a partnership of the Canadian Mental Health Association, Halton Region Branch and the Halton Regional Police Service

Police Retirees of Ontario

An association of retired police officers and civilians who contribute to the community.

Summit Housing and Outreach Programs - Mental Health Supportive Housing and Outreach Programs, Burlington Office - Burlington Office

Provides supportive housing and outreach case management services throughout Halton for people diagnosed with a serious mental illness * services are based on a flexible, rehabilitative model of support and are tailored to meet the varied needs of the people

Programs include:
Halton HOMES Program
provides affordable housing and supports for adults who have been diagnosed with a serious mental illness who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless

Assertive Community Treatment Team (ACTT)
* for clients with severe and persistent mental illness, with priority given to people with schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders and with bipolar disorder

Outreach case management/support service
* for clients 18 years of age or older with a diagnosed mental illness living in the community

Core supportive housing program
* provides safe, secure, affordable, and decent accommodation in a variety of settings
* rent-geared-to-income housing

Volunteer program

Justice Supportive Housing Program
* provides affordable accommodation and flexible supports for people with serious mental illness who have come into conflict with the criminal justice system

Ontario. Ministry of the Attorney General, Court Services - Criminal Court - Hamilton Central - John Sopinka Courthouse

Responsible for the conduct in Ontario of prosecutions under the Criminal Code and other Federal Statutes, such as the Youth Criminal Justice Act, as well as, under provincial statutes, such as the Highway Traffic Act and the Liquor Licence Act.


Canadian Mental Health Association - Mental Health Court Support Services - Hamilton Central - 131 John St

Provides alternatives and options to people with serious mental illness who become involved in the criminal justice system. Three components of the service are mental health court diversion, intensive case management, and release from custody.
Diversion will assist people considered appropriate for diversion to access services, provide consultation to people not deemed suitable for diversion, support family members and significant others, and provide consultation to the judiciary on cases referred for diversion.
Case management will assist individuals who are not eligible for diversion, and provides outreach, court support, support plans, and referral to longer term support services.
Release from custody will provide short-term assistance to individuals being released from correctional custody to facilitate a stable transition.

Mental Health Rights Coalition of Hamilton

A consumer-run drop-in and resource centre for people with lived experience of mental health or addiction problems. Peer support is available as needed in person and over the phone. Also provides peer support training to individuals and agencies.

Ontario. Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services - Probation and Parole – Volunteer Program - Hamilton Central - Ellen Fairclough Bldg, Ste. 104

Enables volunteers to work with individuals who have received dispositions from the court, requiring supervision by a Probation Officer. Volunteer opportunities are available to work with Adult Probation Clients (clients are 18 years of age and older).

Joseph Brant Hospital - Community Mental Health Outpatient Services - Burlington - Joseph Brant Community Health Centre (Brant Centre)

Community Mental Health provides a continuum of care from assessment or consultation, to specialized treatment supports for clients with complex and serious mental health disorders.

Child and Adolescent Clinic (CAP)
Provides support to children/youth under the age of 18 years.
* Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist works with Social Worker to assess and provide treatment recommendations on complex cases.

Concurrent Disorders Clinic (Addictions & Mental Illness)
Specialized assessments of clients with co-occurring mental health and addictions disorders.
* psychiatrists work with Social Worker to identify clients who would benefit from longer term individual treatment.
* clinic staff also provide "Health & Hope Group," a 10-week psycho-educational support group for people who experience difficulties with both a mental health issue and substance abuse issue.

Early Intervention in Psychosis (Phoenix)
Regional clinical program provides service to clients 14-40 years of age experiencing a first episode of psychosis.
* jointly managed by Joseph Brant Hospital, Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, North Halton Mental Health Clinic, ADAPT, and the Halton-Peel Schizophrenia Society.
* for more information, see separate record here

General Psychiatrist Consultation Clinic
Assessment, medication review, and treatment recommendations via a "shared care" model with family physicians.
* follow up appointments provided as necessary for more complex cases to ensure the efficacy of medications prescribed and that the recommended treatment plan is working for the client.

Geriatric Psychiatric Consultation Service
Supports clients aged 65 and older who are residents of Burlington, for more details see separate record here

Halton Homes (homelessness service)
Provides clinical support to Halton Homes service which targets mental health clients at risk of being homeless and provides both clinical case management and housing supports.
* Ontario Ministry of Health supportive housing initiative, lead agency is Summit Housing and Outreach Program.
* for more information see separate records here

PACT (Program of Assertive Community Treatment)
Community outreach program of Halton Region, is housed at Joseph Brant serving all Halton residents, see separate record here

PHAST (Prioritizing Health through Acute Stabilization and Treatment)
Access to mental health and addiction services for individuals 16 and older with mental health and/or addiction concerns who have an urgent need for acute stabilization and intervention
* multidisciplinary model, which includes the services of a registered nurse, addictions specialists, social workers, a child and youth intensive worker, a peer support worker, an occupational therapist, a transitional age youth social worker, a case manager and clerical support
* treatment includes stabilization and referral to social service agency partners through a combination of group and one-on-one sessions for individuals and their families

Treatment Services
Available through referral from a physician:
1. Short Term Treatment
Meets the needs of individuals who are experiencing mental health issues such as mood or anxiety disorders.
* assessment, psychiatric evaluation, treatment planning, skill development and coordination of community resources.
* an average of 12 therapy sessions is offered.
* clinicians also offer treatment via several groups, e.g. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for clients with depression or anxiety.

2. Intensive Case Management
Inter-professional team offers comprehensive outreach services to adult clients and their families.
* addresses the multiple needs of clients with predominantly psychotic or severe mood disorders (eg. bipolar) and focuses on the client's goals and effective community reintegration.

3. Medication Clinic
Operates with both RN and Psychiatrist support for the follow up of primarily a chronic population.
* goals are to facilitate the optimal use of psychotropic medications with a view to prevent/reduce hospitalizations and Emergency Department visits, ensure client stability in the community and support clients in maintaining adequate functioning and an enhanced quality of life.